Redirect output of commands into a text file, so that you can attach it to emails.
$ uname -a > mypc.logman command
This gives a brief online description of the command. man always requires a parameter.
$ man unamesudo command
Run a command with full access rights. You will be asked to enter your password again. The command then executes.
$ sudo chown root:root /etc/init.d/networkingAttention: You turn off Ubuntu's protection features, so double check what you enter!
Provides general system information. Usually called like:
$ uname -aless filename
If you need to view configuration- or logfiles, less allows you to view them on the console. less always requires a parameter.
$ less /etc/X11/xorg.conftail (-f) filename
To view just the most recent part of logfiles, tail shows the last 10 lines of the file. The parameter -f will show new lines as they come in.
$ tail -f /var/log/sysloglspci
Lists all devices attached to the PCI bus. You can analyze hardware problems with this.
If you have trouble with USB devices, this lists all attached USB ports.
Lists kernel modules and their dependencies. You may want to find out, if kernel modules are loaded at all and which modules depend on others.
To read what was printed on the boot screen, this command preserves the messages even when you are in X-Windows.
$ dmesgsysctl kernel.parameter
If you ever need to display or set any kernel parameter, you can use this.
$ sysctl kernel.hostnameTo start a console window, from the main menu select Applications -> Accessories -> Terminal. At the prompt ($) you can enter your command. The output will be shown in the same window.